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Class Overview


In this workshop, you will learn how Copyright and Creative Commons will help you as an educator become aware of the rules and laws regarding copyright and "fair use". This session will help you understand what Creative Commons is and how you can use the free resources that the "Creative Commons" license for music, photos, books and other media has to offer.




Objectives


After completing this session, you will:
  1. Understand the basics of Copyright and Fair Use
  2. Understand how schools can reduce the risk of copyright infringement
  3. Understand what Creative Commons is and its benefits within the classroom.




Key Terms


Copyright
Is a set of exclusive rights granted to the author or creator of an original work, including the right to copy, distribute and adapt the work. The exclusive rights are however balanced for public interest purposes with limitations and exceptions to the exclusive right - such as fair dealing and fair use. (Retrieved from Wikipedia on Nov. 2, 2010. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright)

Fair Use
The concept of "fair use" derives from Section 107 of the Copyright Act of 1976 and provides some exemptions for the reproduction and distribution of copyrighted materials for purposes that might include teaching, research, news reporting, criticism, comment, and scholarship. Some, but not all,academic uses of copyrighted materials might be considered fair use.

Classroom Use
Teachers may display or perform any lawfully obtained material within a classroom designed for face-to-face education without needing to obtain permission. This does not mean teachers can reproduce or distribute materials. The TEACH Act specifically extends these exemptions for on-line and distace education with a few limitations.

Creative Commons
Is an alternative to traditional copyright licensing. Founded by a group of cyber law and intellectual property experts, Creative Commons provides a licensing scheme whereby copyright owners choose the terms under which they will allow use of their copyrighted works and make that choice known via the use of easily identifiable logos. (Bissonett A. , 2009)

Public Domain
When a work is in the public domain, it is available to anyone for any use. An author can choose to put a work in the public domain by labeling it "public domain". Also, all copyrighted works enter the public domain after a period of time. When this happens, copyright no longer applies,and permission is not needed to use these works.

Copyright Authorization:
Information obtained from the book, Cyber Law: Maximizing Safety and Minimizing Risk in Classrooms, was used with written authorization from the author, Aimee M. Bissonette, J.D. obtained on October 29, 2010. (Note to facilitators: A PDF copy of this authorization is stored in the "Images and Files" area of this course.)

Bissonett, A. (2009). Copyright Law in the Classroom: Steering Clear of Legal Liability. In A. Bissonett, Cyber Law: Maximizing Saftety and Minimizing Risk in Classroom (pp. 59-71). Thousand Oaks: Corwin.




Copyright Law and Fair Use - A Basic Overview


"U.S. Copyright law affects schools in a multitude of ways. Increased opportunities for copyright violations (called infringement) arise when computers, digital recording devices, digital cameras, and the Internet are used by students and teachers because of the ease with which others' copyrighted material can be accessed, copied, and reused.

Many educational uses of copyrighted material fall within the fair-use exception to copyright, a portion of the statute that provides for use of some copyrighted materials without permission, but the mere fact that students and teachers are using copyrighted works in educational settings does not, in itself, exempt them from liability under copyright law. A great deal of information on the Internet is protected by copyright, and contrary to popular belief, there is no blanket exception under copyright law for educational uses of that information." (Bissonett, 2009)

Copyright Law and Fair Use Guidelines are becoming a very important part of education today. Copyright Law includes, but is not limited to, rules for making print copies and showing videos in the classroom. Also, many students and teachers are creating multimedia presentations that incorporate digital images and audio clips. While these additions make the presentations more enjoyable and interesting, there are many guidelines that educators need to be aware of before using these enhancements.


Disclaimer:
The information in this module should not be considered legal advice. The intent of this module is to present the guidelines currently available to educators regarding copyright law and fair use.

References:
Bissonett, A. M. (2009). Cyber Law: Maximizing Safety and Minimizing Risk in Classrooms. In A. M. Bissonett, Cyber Law: Maximizing Safety and Minimizing Risk in Classrooms (pp. 59-71). Thousand Oaks: Corwin.

The Library of Congress. (2010, September 27). Copyright. Retrieved October 29, 2010, from U.S. Copyright Office: http://www.copyright.gov./

The Copyright Clearance Center. (2008). The Campus Guide to Copyright Compliance, Retrieved November 3, 2010, http://www.copyright.com/Services/copyrightoncampus/basics/index.html.

Copyright Authorization:
Information obtained from the book, Cyber Law: Maximizing Safety and Minimizing Risk in Classrooms, was used with written authorization from the author, Aimee M. Bissonette, J.D. obtained on October 29, 2010. (Note to facilitators: A PDF copy of this authorization is stored in the "Images and Files" area of this course.)




Definition of Copyright


In the United States, copyright law protects the authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. The law grants copyright holders the exclusive right to reproduce, perform, distribute, translate and publicly display their original works. It is unlawful for anyone to violate any of the rights provided by copyright law to the owner of a copyright. (Library of Congress, 2010)

Simply stated, this means that unless your situation meets one of the exceptions outlined in the Copyright Act, you must get explicit permission from the copyright holder before you can lawfully reuse, reproduce or redistribute a copyright protected work – even within the walls of your institution.

Copyrighted works do not lose their copyright protection when they are posted to the Internet (e.g. music files, YouTube videos, Facebook photographs), something that can be difficult for students to understand. The right to display or to perform a copyrighted work belongs solely to the copyright owner (See the ASCAP scenario #3 found on the page titled "Examples of Copyright Viloations (Infringements)" on the menu table.


Common Ways Students and Teachers Infringe on Others' Copyrights

  • They photocopy others' written works or drawings.
  • They publicly perform copyrighted works without permission or paying a licensing fee.
  • They download documents or images from the Internet.
  • They post others' written or graphic works to their own Web site or use them in their own presentations or multimedia projects.

Doing any of these things without the permission of the copyright owner may constitute infringement for which both the student or teacher and the school can be held liable. As the scenarios found on the page titled "Examples of Copyright Viloations (Infringements)", fines for infringement can run into the thousands of dollars.


Disclaimer:
The information in this module should not be considered legal advice. The intent of this module is to present the guidelines currently available to educators regarding copyright law and fair use.

References:
Bissonett, A. M. (2009). Cyber Law: Maximizing Safety and Minimizing Risk in Classrooms. In A. M. Bissonett, Cyber Law: Maximizing Safety and Minimizing Risk in Classrooms (pp. 59-71). Thousand Oaks: Corwin.

The Library of Congress. (2010, September 27). Copyright. Retrieved October 29, 2010, from U.S. Copyright Office: http://www.copyright.gov./

The Copyright Clearance Center. (2008). The Campus Guide to Copyright Compliance, Retrieved November 3, 2010, http://www.copyright.com/Services/copyrightoncampus/basics/index.html.

Copyright Authorization:
Information obtained from the book, Cyber Law: Maximizing Safety and Minimizing Risk in Classrooms, was used with written authorization from the author, Aimee M. Bissonette, J.D. obtained on October 29, 2010. (Note to facilitators: A PDF copy of this authorization is stored in the "Images and Files" area of this course.)




Explanation of Fair Use


Fair use is a concept embedded in U.S. law that recognizes that certain uses of copyright-protected works do not require permission from the copyright holder or its agent. These include instances of minimal use that do not interfere with the copyright holder's exclusive rights to reproduce and reuse the work.

Fair use is not an exception to copyright compliance; it is more of a "legal defense." That is, if you copy and share a copyright-protected work and the copyright holder claims copyright infringement, you may be able to assert a defense of fair use which you would then have to prove.

Fair use is primarily intended to allow the use of copyright-protected works for commentary, parody, news reporting, research and education. However, not all uses in an academic context are automatically considered fair use.

The Copyright Act does not spell out the specific types of content reproduction that qualify as fair use. It offers an outline as to how to analyze whether fair use may apply in a particular situation. As a result, the Copyright Act leaves it up to the individual to determine, based upon the factors in Section 107 of the Act, whether fair use applies in each particular circumstance. To avoid a potential legal challenge from the copyright holder, many institutions follow a policy of "when in doubt, obtain permission."


So, if someones asks, "What is Fair Use?"
Isn't fair use available as a defense to a lot of infringing activity in the educational arena? The answer is, "it depends." Fair Use often can be asserted in educational settings. In determining whether a use of someone else's copyrighted work without their permission qualifies as a fair use under the copyright law, four factors must be evaluated:


Four Factors Used to Determine Fair Use
  1. The purpose for which the work is used (nonprofit, teaching, and research uses generally are allowed, whereas commercial uses generally are not.)
  2. The nature or characteristics of the work (The use of published or nonfiction works generally is favored over the use of unpublished or fictional, highly creative works because, in the case of the latter, the author either did not agree to share the work publicly via publication or the highly creative nature of the work makes it more unique than a collection of facts that could be amassed by any researcher.
  3. The amount and substantiality of the work used (which includes an evaluation of the quality and the quantity of the work used, so using large portions of a work or portions of the work that are considered key or central to the work is not permitted.)
  4. The effect of the use on the marketability or value of the work (If the use negatively affects the sale or value of the work, it is rarely allowed, so it is important to limit the number of copies made and to not engage in repeated or long-term use of the work without obtaining permission.)

Disclaimer:
The information in this module should not be considered legal advice. The intent of this module is to present the guidelines currently available to educators regarding copyright law and fair use.

References:
Bissonett, A. M. (2009). Cyber Law: Maximizing Safety and Minimizing Risk in Classrooms. In A. M. Bissonett, Cyber Law: Maximizing Safety and Minimizing Risk in Classrooms (pp. 59-71). Thousand Oaks: Corwin.

The Library of Congress. (2010, September 27). Copyright. Retrieved October 29, 2010, from U.S. Copyright Office: http://www.copyright.gov./

The Copyright Clearance Center. (2008). The Campus Guide to Copyright Compliance, Retrieved November 3, 2010, http://www.copyright.com/Services/copyrightoncampus/basics/index.html.

Copyright Authorization:
Information obtained from the book, Cyber Law: Maximizing Safety and Minimizing Risk in Classrooms, was used with written authorization from the author, Aimee M. Bissonette, J.D. obtained on October 29, 2010. (Note to facilitators: A PDF copy of this authorization is stored in the "Images and Files" area of this course.)




Examples of Copyright Violations (Infringements)


Example 1
A school district in California was sued for making nearly 1,400 unauthorized copies of Adobe Photoshop and Microsoft Word and installing them on district computers. The law suit eventually settled out of court, with the school district paying a fine of $300,000 plus the cost of replacing the illegal copies districtwide, roughly $5 million.

Example 2
A Texas school administrator made 300 copies of multiple pages from a book and distrubuted them at a districwide meeting. The administrator was warned against making the copies without permission but did so anyway. The publisher of the book was made aware of the copying and sent cease-and desist letters to the administrator and the superintendent and demanded payment in an amount equal to 300 copies of the book, which reportely was $15,000.

Example 3
The American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP), the organization that represent the interests of songwriters, sent a mailing to 6,000 Girl Scout camps demanding payment of performance royalties by scouts for singing copyrighted songs at camp. Included in the mailing was a schedule of fees that went as high as $1,400 for large, year-round camps. ASCAP argued that singing any of its more than 4 million copyrighted songs without payment of royalties constituted unauthorized performance of copyrighted works by the scouts. When news of ASCAP's demands hit the mainstream media, ASCAP quickly backed off of its legal claim.


Additional Examples of Copyright Case Law:
Wikipedia offers many more example of Copyright Case Law in other jurisdictions. Here is the link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_copyright_case_law

Copyright Infringement Cases Can Teach Us To Obey Copyright Laws:
http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/335346/copyright_infringement_cases_can_teach.html?cat=17

Copyright Authorization:
Information obtained from the book, Cyber Law: Maximizing Safety and Minimizing Risk in Classrooms, was used with written authorization from the author, Aimee M. Bissonette, J.D. obtained on October 29, 2010. (Note to facilitators: A PDF copy of this authorization is stored in the "Images and Files" area of this course.)




Copyright and Fair Use Charts






How to Cite References



APA Style Citation information



Both APA and MLA Style

http://www.colin.edu/vcclib/citesirs.htm - from SIRS Database


MLA Style Citation Information





Suggestions for Lessons in the Classroom


Activities to Use in the Classroom

Here is a list of possible activities that classroom teachers can use to teach students about Copyright Law and the Fair Use Guidelines.

  • The teacher will prepare a lesson about Copyright Law and the Fair Use Guidelines. The students will discuss why this lesson is important. The teacher will then divide the students into small groups. Each group will be presented with a scenario (similar to the ones found on the "Test Your Understanding - Scenarios" page; link found on the menu) that is relevant to that particular class/grade level.

  • There are many resources available for free that are no longer copyrighted. These items are in the public domain. Listed below (on the “Additonal Links and other Resources” page) are several links that will direct you to various books, images, and music that are in the public domain. After leading a discussion about public domain, the teacher can direct the students to examine one of the public domain websites. One site that is very well constructed is the Discovery Clipart site (http://school.discovery.com/clipart/). After the students have looked at the type of artwork available, the teacher will direct them to the Copyright and Use Information page for Discovery Clipart (http://school.discovery.com/clipart/copyright.html). A link is provided at the bottom of the Discovery Clipart homepage, also. The students should read and discuss the guidelines for using the Discovery Clipart. Most public domain websites have information pages similar to the Discovery Clipart page. Students should be reminded to locate the copyright information page in order to properly cite the image, text, or audio they plan to incorporate into a project.

  • After a discussion about the importance of following copyright law, the teacher will have the students read and discuss a high school cheating pamphlet that is currently in use at Lakeview High School in Battle Creek, Michigan, and then design a brochure of their own. (http://academic.kellogg.cc.mi.us/k12lincolnm/cheating98.pdf).

  • To teach young students about copyright, the teacher should lead a discussion about owning property. The students will agree that if someone takes a valued toy, book, stuffed animal, etc. the owner would be very upset. Then, the teacher can explain how it is important to give credit to an author, illustrator or musician if using work from that person. A young student can be taught that it is not right to copy a story or picture from a book and then, tell everyone he/she created it. This lesson could be done prior to beginning a mini-research project.





Video (Summary) - Copyright and Fair Use Overview created and shared by Southwest ISD - Technology Dept.






Test Your Understanding - Scenarios


Take a look at a few possible scenarios, and try to determine if the use is fair or not . Read all three scenarios and then discuss with a partner whether or not the situations falls under fair use. Justify your answers.


No peeking ahead! We will look at the answers together.

Scenario 1
A student in an elementary classroom is working on a project about the tundra. He is creating a PowerPoint presentation to share with the class. The student finds four pictures in a library book that he plans to scan and include in the presentation. He also wants to incorporate some photographs from various websites. At the end of the presentation, the student makes a slide that gives the proper credit for all the illustrations. The student does such a wonderful job that the classroom teacher wants to post the project on the school webpage.

Scenario 2
A student in an English class is creating a poetry multimedia project. She includes several original poems and two of her favorite poems written by Naomi Nye. The student decides to add music to her presentation and includes 30 seconds from the theme for the movie Legends of the Fall. Her presentation is very creative. She does not cite her sources within multimedia project.

Scenario 3
Four students work together to create a movie about famous artists. The students follow the fair use guidelines in determining how many images they are allowed to use. They write original text for the audio portion. When the project is presented, the other students in the class ask for a copy of the movie.


Finished? Now let's take a look at the answers together.




Answers to Scenarios


Scenario 1
A student in an elementary classroom is working on a project about the tundra. He is creating a PowerPoint presentation to share with the class. The student finds four pictures in a library book that he plans to scan and include in the presentation. He also wants to incorporate some photographs from various websites. At the end of the presentation, the student makes a slide that gives the proper credit for all the illustrations. The student does such a wonderful job that the classroom teacher wants to post the project on the school webpage.

ANSWER & EXPLANATION:
The student has followed all the fair use guidelines correctly. However, the teacher cannot post the PowerPoint presentation on the webpage, unless it is password protected. If permission is granted for using each of the illustrations, then the project could be posted.

Scenario 2
A student in an English class is creating a poetry multimedia project. She includes several original poems and two of her favorite poems written by Naomi Nye. The student decides to add music to her presentation and includes 30 seconds from the theme for the movie Legends of the Fall. Her presentation is very creative. She does not cite her sources within multimedia project.

ANSWER & EXPLANATION:
The student correctly followed the guidelines for the amount of poetry and music included. However, her project did not follow fair use guidelines since she did not give credit to the poetry and music copyright holders.

Scenario 3
Four students work together to create a movie about famous artists. The students follow the fair use guidelines in determining how many images they are allowed to use. They write original text for the audio portion. When the project is presented, the other students in the class ask for a copy of the movie.

ANSWER & EXPLANATION:
If the students agree to make copies of the presentation for their classmates, they will not be following fair use guidelines. Only the students involved in creating the project are allowed to have a copy.




Copyright Additional Links and Resources



Free Resources that can be used by students, staff, and teachers.
1. University of Maryland's Copyright Primer (including an interactive 21 question quiz) at: http://www-apps.umuc.edu/primer/enter.php#.
Note: it will require you to enter your e-mail address and position. Then you will be given access.

2. University of Texas's Crash Course in Copyright at http://wwwutsystem.edu/ogc/intellectualproperty/cprtindx.htm

3. Minnesota State Colleges and Universities' Copyright Website (including "check your understanding" scenarios about educational copyright issues) at http://www.copyright.mnscu.edu/


Additional Video on Copyright
Video - Video - Fair(y) Use Tale (Stanford University)


Useful Websites to learn more about Copyright Law and the Fair Use Guidelines General Websites:
http://www.knowyourcopyrights.org/resourcesfac/kycrbrochure.shtml - Association of Research Libraries: Know Your Copy Rights guide/form
http://orpheum.its.mnscu.edu/copyright/college/index.html - Copyright and Intellectual Property, Minnesota State Colleges & Universities
http://www.merlot.org/merlot/index.htm - Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching (MERLOT)
http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ1.html - document from the U.S. Copyright Office – includes a link in Spanish
http://www.nccei.org/blackboard/copyright.html - easy to read chart summarizing fair use
http://www.copyright.iupui.edu/checklist.htm - fair use checklist
http://www.mediafestival.org/quiz1.pdf - copyright quiz
http://www.mediafestival.org/answ1.pdf - answers to above copyright quiz
http://www.education-world.com/a_curr/curr280a.shtml - article from Education World
http://www.ascd.org/authors/ed_lead/el200112_simpson.html - article from Educational Leadership
http://www.techlearning.com/db_area/archives/TL/2002/10/copyright.html - article from techLearning
http://www.techlearning.com/db_area/archives/TL/2002/10/copyright.html - article from techLearning
http://www.electronic-school.com/0698f5.html - article from Electronic School
http://www.cybersmartcurriculum.org/act_sheets/CY00_Stdnt_G45_L8.pdf - excellent worksheet to use with elementary age students
http://www.lane.k12.or.us/media/images/copyguide01.pdf - Oregon education service district copyright guideline manual
http://groton.k12.ct.us/mts/cimhp01.htm - educational use of music


Public Domain Websites
http://www.unc.edu/~unclng/public-d.htm - chart explaining public domain
http://www.gutenberg.org/ - books available on the public domain
http://mciunix.mciu.k12.pa.us/~spjvweb/cfimages.html - links to many public domain images sites
http://pdphoto.org/ - public domain photographs
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Public_domain_resources – large listing of public domain items
http://www.awesomeclipartforeducators.com/ - large collection of free clip art




Creative Commons


What is Creative Commons?

Aimee M. Bissonette, author of Cyber Law: Maximizing Safety and Minimizing Risk in the classrooms, does a wonderful job of answering this question and how it relates to the field of education.

In their efforts to reduce the risk of infringement, schools should also acquaint students teachers, and staff with Creative Commons licensing. Creative Commons is an alternative to traditional copyright licensing. Founded by a group of cyber law and intellectual property experts, Creative Commons provides a licensing scheme whereby copyright owners choose the terms under which they will allow use of their copyrighted works and make that choice known via the use of easily identifiable logos.

Copyright owners who are willing to share their works with others can choose from several different Creative Commons licensing levels (attribution, noncommercial, no derivatives, and share alike). In doing so, they can offer some rights to their copyrighted works to the public without risk of giving up other rights. Student, teachers, and staff can seek out and use copyrighted works licensed under Create Commons without fear of infringement because Creative commons allows them to know, at a glance, which works they are free to use and under what conditions.


How does Creative Commons Impact Teachers in the Classroom?

Creative Commons licensing reduces the risk of copyright infringement in the classroom because, as long as the copyright owners' Creative Commons terms are honored, there is not a need to seek permission to use a copyrighted work or to worry about whether use of the work falls within the fair use exception to the copyright law. Users only need to contact copyright owners for permission to use certain works if their proposed use is not a permitted use under the terms of the Creative Commons license.

Copyright Authorization:
Information obtained from the book, Cyber Law: Maximizing Safety and Minimizing Risk in Classrooms, was used with written authorization from the author, Aimee M. Bissonette, J.D. obtained on October 29, 2010. (Note to facilitators: A PDF copy of this authorization is stored in the "Images and Files" area of this course.)

Bissonett, A. (2009). Copyright Law in the Classroom: Steering Clear of Legal Liability. In A. Bissonett, Cyber Law: Maximizing Saftety and Minimizing Risk in Classroom (pp. 59-71). Thousand Oaks: Corwin.



Creative Commons Video and Other Helpful Resources



Introduction Videos for Creative Commons:


Let's Go to Creative Commons


Additional Resources to Help Share Creative Commons in the Classroom


Public Domain, Copyright Free, Open Source, and Student Use Images and Media
Large Image Resources and Indexes
Copryight-Free Photo Archives - 27,000 images from NASA, NOAA, and FWS
http://gimp-savvy.com/PHOTO-ARCHIVE/
DHD Multimedia Gallery (Selection of images, sounds, etc.)
http://gallery.hd.org/index.jsp
Free Foto
http://www.freefoto.com/
Free Images - 2500 stock photos (most free, some members only)
http://www.freeimages.co.uk/
Free Stock Photos
http://freestockphotos.com/
Imagesafter (Hi-res images, photos, & textures)
http://www.imageafter.com/
MorgueFile (Some are free for students to use in projects, but not copyright-free)
http://www.morguefile.com/
Pics4Learning - great for general topics
http://pics4learning.com/
Smithsonian Institution's Office of Imaging and Photographic Services
http://photo2.si.edu/

Photo Resources
ARS (Agricultural Research Service) Image Gallery
http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/graphics/photos/
Art Images for College Teaching (AICT) by A. T. Kohl
http://arthist.cla.umn.edu/aict/index.html
Coin Page
http://www.coinpage.com/
Free Public Domain Images - small collection
http://www.pdimages.com/web6.htm
Great Images in NASA
http://grin.hq.nasa.gov/
JSC Digital Image Collection (NASA) - seach or browse 9000 NASA images
http://images.jsc.nasa.gov/
NASA Multimedia Gallery (Images, video, and interactive features)
http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/highlights/index.html
Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Photo Gallery
http://photogallery.nrcs.usda.gov/
NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Photo Library - search 20,000 NOAA images
http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/
Planetary Photojournal from NASA
http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/
Public Health Image Library (PHIL) from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
http://phil.cdc.gov/Phil/default.asp
US Fish and Wildlife Service: Pictures/Graphics
http://pictures.fws.gov/

Clip Art Resources
Animation Factory (3D animations and clipart)
http://www.animfactory.com/
Awesome Clipart for Kids, Teacher & Family
http://www.awesomeclipartforkids.com/
Clip Art Connection
http://www.clipartconnection.com/
Clip Art Gallery from DiscoverySchool
http://school.discovery.com/clipart/
Graphic Maps
http://www.graphicmaps.com/clipart.htm
Page Resource (backgrounds, dividers, images, and links)
http://www.pageresource.com/graphics/index.html

Images on Specific Topics
Abraham Lincoln - 5 pictures
http://showcase.netins.net/web/creative/lincoln/resource/freepix.htm
Images from the History of Medicine (IHM) from National Library of Medicine
http://wwwihm.nlm.nih.gov/
Images of American Political History
http://teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_pol_hist/
Map Collections: 1500-2003 from American Memory, Library of Congress
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/gmdhome.html
Moving Image Archive from Internet Archive
http://www.archive.org/movies/movies.php

Text Resources
Project Gutenberg (electronic texts)
http://gutenberg.net/
Stories and Characters That Have Had Their Copyright Expire
http://www.pdimages.com/stories.htm

Music
Links to Search for PD Music and Lyrics
http://www.pdinfo.com/link.htm

Few Other Sources With Varying Restrictions
The following sites contain some photographsand/or that may also require payment or permission for use. Read the copyright sections at each site to determine exact restrictions.
American Memory from the Library of Congress
http://rs6.loc.gov/amhome.html
Free Photographs
http://www.free-photographs.net/
iStockphoto (Read the Introduction section to learn more about their download credit system)
http://www.istockphoto.com/
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
http://www.metmuseum.org/home.asp
NASA Image eXchange (NIX)
http://nix.nasa.gov/
NetVet (Links-site to collections with varying restrictions of use)
http://netvet.wustl.edu/pix.htm
New York Public Library Picture Collection Online
http://digital.nypl.org/mmpco/
Collection of 30,000 digitized images from books, magazines and newspapers as well as original photographs, prints and postcards, mostly created before 1923.

Issues
You should go directly to the original source and obtain your own copy of the public domain image rather than copying a copy. You do not have the right to modify the work of the copyright owner without permission.

Special Care
Some companies such as Disney are particularly concerned about their trademarks and logos. Be aware of these companies.
Images and the Law
http://www.pdimages.com/web9.htm





ISTE Standards


This module will help teachers accomplish the following standards:

I. Technology Operations and Concepts.
Teachers demonstrate a sound understanding of technology operations and concepts. Teachers:
B. demonstrate continual growth in technology knowledge and skills to stay abreast of current and emerging technologies.
II. Planning and Designing Learning Environments and Experiences.
Teachers plan and design effective learning environments and experiences supported by technology. Teachers:
C. identify and locate technology resources and evaluate them for accuracy and suitability.
D. plan for the management of technology resources within the context of learning activities.
E. plan strategies to manage student learning in a technology-enhanced environment.
III. Teaching, Learning, and the Curriculum
Teachers implement curriculum plans, that include methods and strategies for applying technology to maximize student learning. Teachers:
A. facilitate technology-enhanced experiences that address content standards and student technology standards.
C. manage student learning activities in a technology-enhanced environment.
IV. Assessment and Evaluation
Teachers apply technology to facilitate a variety of effective assessment and evaluation strategies. Teachers:
B. use technology resources to collect and analyze data, interpret results, and communicate findings to improve instructional practice
and maximize student learning.
C. apply multiple methods of evaluation to determine students' appropriate use of technology resources for learning,communication,and
productivity.
V. Productivity and Professional Practice
Teachers use technology to enhance their productivity and professional practice.
Teachers:
B. continually evaluate and reflect on professional practice to make informed decisions regarding the use of technology in support of
student learning.
C. apply technology to increase productivity.
VI. Social, Ethical, Legal, and Human Issues
Teachers understand the social, ethical, legal, and human issues surrounding the use of technology in PK-12 schools and apply those principles in practice.
Teachers:
A. model and teach legal and ethical practice related to technology use.
D. promote safe and healthy use of technology resources.